Sockeye SalmonLatin name: Oncorhynchus Nerka,
Conservsation status: least concern (population is stable)
Sockeye Salmon, once they leave the fresh water where they are born, may travel as far away as 2600 miles before returning to the same waters to spawn, one to four years later.
For decades wild salmon populations have been in decline from human causes: over fishing; habitat degradation—logging, mining, agriculture and dams; pollution; and interaction with hatchery or farmed salmon. These conditions and threats may hinder their ability to adapt to the effects of climate change. Salmon thrive at specific freshwater temperatures—warming air raises water temperature. Early snow melt and increased rains cause physical changes to spawning streams.
Other animals at risk
Polar Bears live only in the Arctic. Loss of sea ice has a critically adverse effect on Polar Bears. They hunt from the edge and build snow dens on the ice for resting and raising their cubs. Sea ice decline could open the Arctic to shipping and tourism, further disturbing Arctic habitats. Other threats are oil development and industrial pollution that reaches the Arctic through air and ocean currents.
Belugas live in Arctic and Sub-Arctic waters. Impacts from climate change include: an increase in ship traffic as sea ice declines, oil exploration and extraction, fisheries by-catch, and disruption of the food web. As Arctic waters warm and currents change, the Humpback (a competitor) and the Orca (a predator) may move north and stay longer. Some Beluga populations are also threatened by hunting, pollution and habitat loss.
American pikas occupy talus—rock piles that accumulate at the base of a slope—at high elevations in western mountains. Pikas are thought to be a prime example of the potential effects of climate change because they are sensitive to warm temperatures and rely on insulation provided by snow to survive cold winter temperatures. However, several recent studies indicate that pikas can be resilient to each of these factors. Most pikas in the Sierra Nevada survived the winter of 2014, when there was almost no snowpack. Pikas persist in many hot localities as well, demonstrating their ability to cope with high temperatures.
The annual North American migration of the Monarch is listed as a "threatened phenomenon." Climate related threats include: drought, storms, changes in precipitation and dependence on temperature to trigger migration and reproduction. The Monarch feeds and lays eggs exclusively on milkweed plants, so it is also highly vulnerable to herbicides and habitat destruction.